# Calculation field

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« as of 2018-03-30, editions Mobile 4.4.5, Desktop 1.3.0 »

The values in Calculation fields are calculated from the expressions specified by you in Memento Script, defined herein.

The following types of expressions are supported:

Numeric
Expressions involving numbers
String
Strings can also be added together, compared, etc
Boolean
Expressions that evaluate to true (1.0) and false (0.0)

Numeric and string types can not be mixed in a left / right operand pair.

## Result type

For each calculation, there must be a correct result type set:

Real result and Integer result
are used for expressions with a numerical result
Date/Time result
is used to represent the result in the form of date and time. The calculation result is interpreted as the number of seconds that has passed since January 1, 1970 (UNIX time).
Date result
is the same as the previous type, but displays only the date
String result
is used for expressions that contain string manipulations or functions that return a string

## Field value references and other variables

The values of other fields in the same entry and fields in linked libraries may be referenced by enclosing them within a hash mark and open brace #{ and a closed brace }. Other values can be referenced in similar fashion, such as the number of fields in an entry. These constitute read-only variables. For example, consider the following expression:

`#{field name 1} + #{library 2.field name 2}`

String values must be enclosed by single-quote (apostrophe) characters:

`'Result: ' + '#{string field 1}' + '#{string field 2}'`

Field references may be typed into the Expression area, or they may be inserted by pressing the +Field button and selecting from among the fields listed.

Values of variables cannot be changed by the Calculation field.

## Operators

The following operators are supported:

Symbol Operator Description
(
)
open parenthesis
closed parenthesis
Grouping
Group together a subexpression within an outer expression
Example: (subexpression 1) + (subexpression 2)
-
+
minus
plus
Unary number
Example: -5 or +10
+
-
addition
subtraction
Binary
Example: #{a} + #{b} - 1
*
/
multiplication
division
Binary
Example: 6 / (8 * 13)
% modulo Binary, integer remainder after division
Example: #{months} % 12
==
!=
<
<=
>
>=
equal
not equal
less
less or equal
greater
greater or equal
Binary, relational
Example: if( #{count} <= #{max} , #{count} , #{max} )
&&
||
and
or
Binary, for TRUE and FALSE (Boolean)
Example: if( #{Done} || ( #{Able} && #{Trying} ) , 'Raise' , 'No raise' )
! not Unary, for TRUE or FALSE (Boolean)
Example: if( ! #{Done} , 'Work' , 'Relax' )

## Functions

Functions are available to assist in crafting expressions to calculate a final result. Function calls may be typed into the expression, or the user may use the +Function button to display a tabbed list of functions that may be used.

Note
The rest of this section documents the available functions. However, while the functions may be better explained here, it may be incomplete or even incorrect. The menus of available functions within Memento when using the +Function button are quite useful and will always be more recently updated than what is documented here.

### Math functions

Unless otherwise specified, all numbers are real numbers.

Function Arguments Returns
abs number Absolute value of number
acos radians Arc cosine of the angle
asin radians Arc sine of the angle
atan radians Arc tangent of the angle
atan2 x, y Arc tangent of an angle, given its rectangular coordinates
ceil number Ceiling value of number
cos radians Cosine of the angle
exp integer Exponential number e raised to the power of integer
floor number Floor value of number
log number Natural logarithm (base e) of number
max number1, number2 The maximum value of number1 & number2
min number1, number2 The minimum value of number1 and number2
pow number, integer number raised to the power of integer
rint real real adjusted to the closest integer, returned as a real
round real Closest integer to real
sin radians Sine of the angle
sqrt number Square root of number
tan radians Tangent of the angle
toDegrees radians Angle in degrees
toRadians degrees Angle in radians

### Date/Time Functions

Function Arguments Returns
datediff date1, date2 Number of days between the 2 dates (date2 - date1)
dateadd
4 arguments
date,
intervalDays,
intervalMonths,
intervalYears
date incremented by the date interval
dateadd
7 arguments
date,
intervalSeconds,
intervalMinutes,
intervalHours,
intervalDays,
intervalMonths,
intervalYears
date incremented by the time interval
formatDate seconds Equivalent date string (seconds since start of Jan 1 1970)
formatDateTime seconds Equivalent date/time string (seconds since start of Jan 1 1970)
formatTime seconds Equivalent time string (seconds since start of Jan 1 1970)
now The current time in seconds since the start of Jan 1 1970
Uses Universal Time (UTC) regardless of local settings or time zone
relativeTimeStr startTime String describing the elapsed time since the given start time
formatDuration seconds Duration as a string formatted as MM:SS or H:MM:SS

### String functions

Regarding string functions, an index is the relative number of a character within the string. The first string character has index 0 (zero).

Function Arguments Returns
numToStr number String representation of number
compareTo string1,
string2
Zero, if the strings are equal
A negative number, if string1 < string2
A positive number, if string1 > string2
compareToIgnoreCase string1,
string2
Zero, if the strings are equal (ignoring case)
A negative number, if string1 < string2 (ignoring case)
A positive number, if string1 > string2 (ignoring case)
concat string1,
string2
String of string2 appended to the end of string1
`concat(#{name}, ', Jr.')`
endsWith string1,
string2
TRUE (1.0), if string1 ends with string2
FALSE (0.0), if it doesn't
equals string1,
string2
TRUE (1.0), if the strings are identical
FALSE (0.0), if not
equalsIgnoreCase string1,
string2
TRUE (1.0), if the strings are identical (ignoring case)
FALSE (0.0), if not
indexOf string1,
string2,
index
Within string1 from index to the end, the index of the next occurrence of string2
-1, if no more occurrences
`next = indexOf(#{Description}, ' and ', next)`
length string Length of (number of characters in) string
replace string,
char1,
char2
String of string with all matching char1s replaced with char2s
`replace(#{Description}, ';', '.')`
startsWith string1,
string2,
index
TRUE (1.0), if string1, starting at position index, starts with string2
FALSE (0.0), if it doesn't
substring string,
startIndex,
endIndex
The substring of string that starts at startIndex and ends at endIndex
toLowerCase string The string string with all uppercase characters converted to lowercase
toUpperCase string The string string with all lowercase characters converted to uppercase
trim string The string string with all "white space" (blanks, tabs, etc) removed from both ends

### Logical functions

Function Arguments Returns
if expression,
valueIfTrue,
valueIfFalse
One value if a logical expression is TRUE (not equal to 0.0)
and another if it is FALSE (equal to 0.0)
Read it as "If expression is true, then valueIfTrue, else valueIfFalse"
`if(#{remaining} == 0, 'Done', 'Incomplete')`
switch expression,
valueResultPairs,
defaultResult
1+(2*#pairs)+1 arguments
The final result based on matching expression against the paired values to identify the paired result (or else defaultResult) to be used
```switch(#{count},
1, 'One',
2, 'Two',
'Many')```

## Accessing values of linked library entries

Use the following syntax to get access to the values of Link to Entry and other linking fields:

`#{link field name.linked field name}`

where link field name is the name of a Link to Entry field, linked field name is the name of a field of a related entry.

You can select a field, including one from a related library, using the +Field button.

If a link field contains several links, then use an index (starting from zero) to get access to them:

`#{link field name@0.linked field name}, #{link field name@1.linked field name}, …`

You can specify one of the supported aggregation functions instead of the index:

`#{link field name@sum.linked field name}`

This expression returns the sum of values of field linked field name for all entries included into link field name. The functions supported are: sum, avg, min, and max.

Use the following syntax to get the number of entries in the library referenced by link field name:

`#{link field name@size}`

### Link example: Parents and children

Parents contains fields Name and Age. Children has fields Name and Parents (link to entry (many-to-many)).

Add field "Average parent age" (calculation, real, scale 1) to Children and select the related field from the +Field list: parents.age. Then insert "@avg", making it:

`#{parents@avg.age}`

### Link example: Orders of products

Products has fields SKU, Description, and Price. Orders has fields #, Date, Customer (link to entry (one-to-many)), and Products (link to entry (many-to-many)).

Add field "Total" (calculation, real, scale 2) to Orders and select the related field from the +Field list: products.price. Then insert "@sum", making it:

`#{products@sum.price}`

Note: This example points out a deficiency in using a many-to-many relationship for orders of products (or of services). One would hope to associate a quantity for each product ordered, but that requirement cannot be met with this 3-library technique. So, in real life, order solutions generally involve 4 libraries: Customers, Products, Orders, and Order Items. The quantity can reside in Order Items.

## Examples

#### Example: Single-operator expression

Entries contain fields: Price, Count

We add a Calculation field Sum by using the following expression:

`#{Price} * #{Count}`

#### Example: Percentage

Entries contain fields: Count, Total

We add a Calculation field Percentage by using the following expression:

`(#{Count } / #{ Total }) * 100`

#### Example: Duration

Entries contain fields: StartDateTime, EndDateTime

We add a Calculation field Duration by using the following expression (result is the number of seconds):

`#{EndDateTime} - #{StartDateTime}`

#### Example: Days

Entries contain fields: StartDate, EndDate

We add a Calculation field Days by using the following expression:

`datediff(#{StartDate}, #{EndDate})`

#### Example: Days left

Entries contain field: Time

We add a Calculation field Days Left by using the following expression:

`if( #{Time} > now() , rint((#{Time} - now())/(60*60*24)) , 'in the past' )`

#### Example: References

There’s a library Order containing orders and a library Item containing items. Library Order contains a link to library Item and a numeric field Count. Library Item contains field Price.

To calculate the cost of the order, add Calculation field Sum using the following formula:

`#{count} * #{item.price}`

If an order can make a reference to several different items, their total cost can be calculated:

`#{item@sum.price}`

The most expensive item:

`#{item@max.price}`

The cheapest item:

`#{item@min.price}`

The average price for the item:

`#{item@avg.price}`

## Aggregation functions in Calculation fields

Aggregation functions are used to process multiple values ​​of fields of linked entries and return one value.

```// This function returns the sum of values
//    ​​of the field called linked_field_name for all entries
//    included in link_field_name.

\$sum('link_field_name.linked_field_name')```

Aggregation functions can be used with multiple field of a linked entry. In this case, a pairing operation is specified, which will be applied to the fields before the main aggregation function is applied.

```// This function first multiplies the field1 and field2 fields
//    of the linked entry of the link_field_name field.
// After that the resulting set of numbers is summed.
// The pairwise operation, in this case, is multiplication: '@mul'

\$sum('link_field_name.field1', 'link_field_name.field2', '@mul')```

Note that the function parameters are specified in single quotes.

Function Arguments Returns
\$sum fields, operation (optional, used if multiple argument fields are specified) fields &{mdash;} the identifier of the field or attribute of the linked entry in the format: 'link_field_name.linked_field_name'
where link_field_name is the name of a Link to Entry field.
where linked_field_name is the name of a field of a linked entry.

If multiple attributes are received from the linked entries, the paired operation is performed before the summation takes place. The function returns the summation. The type of paired operation is defined by the last argument of the function operation(). The type of paired operation is determined by the last argument of the function operation()and can be one of the following:

• '@mul' - multiplication of fields (attributes).
• '@add' - addition of fields (attributes).
• '@sub' - subtraction of fields (attributes) from the field specified first.
• '@div' is the division of the fields (attributes) into the field specified first.

The operation() argument is optional. If it is not specified, then the multiplication operation is used as a default.

\$avg fields, operation This function returns the average of values of field linked_field_name for all entries included into link_field_name.
\$min fields, operation This function returns the minimum of values of field linked_field_name for all entries included into link_field_name.
\$max fields, operation This function returns the maximum of values of field linked_field_name for all entries included into link_field_name.

## Name and Hint

Standard across all field types.

## Advanced Parameters

Thousands separators
If the chosen result type is Integer or Real, use spaces as separators to break the value into thousands. By default, it will not.

## Display Options

Display in the list as
Select among the following roles for the current field:
• As a Regular field
• As an Entry Name
• As an Entry Description
• As an Entry Status
Use in Calendar as
None / Duration, mins / Duration, hours
The field name
Display the name of the field in the card entry (By default, On). By this, it is meant that the field name will or will not be displayed on either the Entry View card or the Entry Edit card.
Font
Choices are:
• Family: Regular, Light, Condensed, Thin, Medium. By default, Regular.
• Style: Normal, Bold, Italic, Bold Italic. By default, Normal.
• Size: By default, 18. Direct entry to change.
• Color: By default, White. Palette of 20 colors, backed up by a continuously variable color chooser.
Dependencies
Ability to add one or more visibility dependencies upon fields with qualifying types.